Thursday, July 21, 2016

Open letter, circular letter, collective letter ... (1)

Note này để ghi lại những gì tôi đang đã/đang tìm hiểu liên quan đến các loại thư (thư ngỏ, thư chung vv) mà thỉnh thoảng ta vẫn thấy được công bố rộng rãi. Chúng khác nhau ra sao nhỉ?

1. Circular letter (thư luân lưu)

A circular letter is a document or letter that is sent to a closed group of people with the intention of being widely circulated. In business, circular letters are used to inform their recipients of new policies or other important matters. They might be sent to all of a company's employees or clients to notify them of new company plans or a change of address.

Circular letters have also been used in politics. Samuel Adams famously wrote a missive about the unconstitutionality of the Townshend Acts in 1768. He expressed the opinion that the taxes that the British Parliament was levying against the colonies were unjust because of the lack of colonial representation in Parliament. It was passed by the Massachusetts House of Representatives, and became known as the Massachusetts Circular Letter.

Circular letter is a written document that is addressed for circulation to a group of people. It is usually formal and official. It may be for a closed group or general distribution. It may be an effective substitute for a personal visit.

2. Open letter (thư ngỏ)

An open letter is a letter that is intended to be read by a wide audience, or a letter intended for an individual, but that is nonetheless widely distributed intentionally.[1]
Open letters usually take the form of a letter addressed to an individual but provided to the public through newspapers and other media, such as a letter to the editor or blog.[2] Especially common are critical open letters addressed to political leaders.
Currently there are very few sites solely specialising in publishing open letters. However, there are community sites where visitors can publish their own letters and promote them to a wider audience.[3] Sociological or historical research on open letters are also not found, although sociologists and historians have written open letters.[4] Recently, a professor of anthropology at Vidyasagar University in India has written a comprehensive article on open letter.[5]
Letters patent are another form of open letter in which a legal document is both mailed to a person by the government, and publicized so that all are made aware of it. Open letters can also be addressed directly to a group rather than any individual.

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