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1. The role of institutional research in higher education (1988) - http://gustavus.edu/library/Pubs/Lindell98.html
Institutional research is a necessary component of colleges and universities. It is used to learn about the success of students and departments, trace alumni, recruit new students, hire new faculty, and much more. In higher education, each department uses institutional data for many functions.
2. EAIR - history, structure, themes - http://7163.ro/emahe/upload/Mueller_2006_European%20Association%20of%20Institutional%20Research.pdf
EAIR was founded as a spin-off from the American AIR after a process of secession. Let us have a brief look at the different situations in Europe and North America to understand the origin of EAIR. In the early days of EAIR the setting in Europe and the situation of its members was very different compared to that in North America: Universities in Europe lived the Humboldtian ideal and (were) developed in close relationship to politics and government.
Financed and developed by public means they never had such a strong need to fulfill
stakeholder requirements. On the other hand, American universities were used to reflect the standing and repute of the establishment in the community and their ties to local communities were strong. Universities found themselves in a competition and institutional research was seen as an “internal audit” (NEAVE, 2003). The clientele of AIR had a natural position in universities and they never had to justify their work. So they had a deeply positive self-conception about their work.
After the student movement in the end of the 1960s many traditions of the old European universities were abolished. One of the consequences of this was that students and staff obtained the right of co-determination. The movement towards mass higher education required new and structured programs as well as monitoring tools. They were established by the government such as in Spain and France or by the institutions themselves, as in Sweden and Great Britain.